UX Week / Behavioral Change Workshop / BJ Fogg

BJ Fogg - Behavioral Change Workshop

*** Put "hot triggers" in the path of motivated people ***
People can take action immediately.

Behavioral Change Point of View: Observing life: Trigger. Motivator. This is what happened.
Longterm principles - valid 5 years ago. Valid 20 years from now.

(Most people who "made it" don't retire because it's boring. They end up doing something else and working at least as hard because they don't want people to think their first success was a fluke.)

Reframe the problem / Boil it down from the execs: What are our behavioral change targets?
Keep you from being whipped around.

Longterm behavioral change:
- Epiphany - Design for epiphany is super hard
- Change in Context - Changing the context around your life. When your motivation is superhigh, put in the investment to change your context so it's super easy to do it when your motivation is lower.
- Baby Steps - It works!

What's a behavior?
Persuasion is about changing behavior change. (BJ now sees attitude change secondary -- more impotent is what you do than what you think.)
Behavior is pattern of actions over time? Could also be one-time.
Habit is something you do without thinking about.

Exercise: list 3 behaviors:
Drink milk before going to bed
Floss your teeth at night
Read the newspaper while eating breakfast
Demonstrate more affection to my wife

Behavioral change in your own life:
Tell stories more concisely, in a more intriguing manner.
Barriers? Lazy? Social (Pack Animals)? Creatures of habit?

Formula for op Ed. Formula for short story.
Give yourself time limit.

Book on behavioral change. Don't shoot the dog.

Default steps to behavioral change:
1) Trigger
2) Ability: Make it easy
3) Motivation

Fast track: find someone else who's done that, look at what's working, imitate it.
Don't work from theory! Imitate what works and we can find a model to explain it later.

B=mat at the same time
(Behavior = Motivation + Ability + Trigger)
Activation Threshold: Trigger above the threshold and behavior matters.
Kairos = Timing matters. Technology can predict the right moment.

*** In behavioral change, ability matters more than motivation. ***
Start with your easiest audience first, then expand out. Design for them first.
First appeal to most likely adopters: people who already have the motivation and the ability. Just need to be triggered. Eg. People who want to bike to work and have the ability.
Then to people who have the motivation but don't have the ability. Tell them the bike path.
Then to people who have the ability but not the motivation. But changing motivation is hard.
People with no motivation and ability: mission impossible?

Urgent vs Important. Oftentimes, the important things you don't get triggered.

Book: Getting Things Done.

Rewards in Motivation:
Points: # connections in LinkedIn. Spark = Trigger with reward

Awesome, great, we want to put video on the website. What we really want to do is get them to give us their email address so we can spam them. Right now their ability to do it is high, but the motivation is low. How do we increase that motivation? Now that they have both the motivation and the ability, we need to give them a call to action.

Problem: Get them to go to and sign in our website
Are we triggering them?
Is it easy enough to do?
Are they motivated?

New & free ebook from BJ's lab

6 Elements
*** Time. Money. Physical effort. Brain cycles. Social deviance. Non-routine. ***
Routine - can we piggyback on something they already do?
Each person has different resources available, and these vary by context.
Simplicity is function of most scarce resource.
In general: Simplify first, then worry about motivation later.

Simplicity = the minimally satisfying solution at the lowest cost.
Simplicity lives outside the product. It's based on who I am and my context.
Eg. Gps device in car. Simplicity different for teenager vs woman in 70s

Get people to print more:
Contest for printed photos
Encourage people to print things they'll keep
Make easy to make something special, worth having on paper: invitation cards Remove the demotivators: Reuse, recycle, make people feel less guilty. (like a cigarette company?)
Do not print this email. Print something worthwhile.
Contest to reuse for what you've printed already: second life for printed paper.
Deal with environmental aspect... We're environment neutral.
The new print.

Persuasion techniques
Praise. Give rewards. Points. Positive feedback. Criticism. Dozens & dozens. Over 100!

Books: Robert Taldini's "Influence" book gets you into the first 6.
"Don't Shoot the Dog," by Karen Prior. Training animals.
"Self Efficacy," by Robert Tome. Deep. No picture.
"Our Social World"

Video story: Henry gets triggered in Amsterdam.
Simplify the user experience.
Put Hot Triggers in the path of motivated people.

What is the existing path of your people?
What doesn't work is putting a trigger on a path where they're not already there.
What good is a trigger if people don't see it.

Triggers in my natural path:
Email. Facebook feed. Twitter feed @your_handle. Browser homepage. Calendaring. Testing. Embedded in 3rd party "topical" websites. RSS feed, iGoogle. Search. Google maps. Google Calendar. While you're waiting for things to upload or download. The fridge door. Smell in front of BBQ place.

You can't get people to pick up a new tech channel *and* pick up a new behavior at the same time. Must do one first, *then* the other.

3 types of triggers
1) high motivation, low ability: Facilitator: makes behavior easier. " Buy now with one click". Find friends by importing Gmail contacts. Can you take a moment to watch. Click here to watch.
2) high ability, low motivation: Spark. Motivates behavior. IPhone update fixes man bugs and security holes (hope/fear). Video is a great way to spark... Motivational purposes.
3) high ability and high motivation: Signal. Indicates behavior. Now's an appropriate time to do what you want to do.

In the future, Cold Triggers are becoming useless.
Cold Trigger = trigger that you can't take action now.
Ad agency: traditional advertising and TV commercials are losing influence. Dinosaur approach to behavioral change.

Today's tech dramas:
Who controls the Hot Triggers?
facebook. Twitter. Google. Bing.
Control the trigger => Control the behavior => control the platform => back again
Eg. Texting => Twitter
Email => Facebook

You know you've got a platform when someone pays you to put hot triggers in the path of users. Eg. Google. Farmville with in-game incentives (7/11).
Platform = platform for hot triggers

Focus on behaviors (results)
Dive deeply into user paths
Start with what you can measure Become experts in hot triggers

Every successful Web 2.0 service follows this pattern: (target behaviors)
Discovery: learn about service. Visit site.
Superficial Involvement: Decide to try. Get started.
True Commitment: create value & content. Involve others. Stay active & loyal.

Facebook: whole feed are hot triggers.
Facebook = landscape for persuasion:
Get people to friend others: "People you may know" hot trigger!

*** Facebook was the #1 persuasion platforms of all time. ***
Watch what they're doing. They're the one to watch. They don't get everything right, but they try a lot of things and do get a lot right. Best example *ever* of persuasion.
Facebook Places is a mistake UX-wise. Too much fear factor; most people aren't

"Crispy" - very clear what the action they want is

Groupon example

GetGlue.com example

Imoveyou.com Example
I will _________ if my friend will ____________.
Motivation: it's your friend challenging you
Ability: UI is easy
Trigger: email

GlowCaps. Glows when you need to take a pill. Ringtone if lare. Calls you if you still miss it. Also sends report to your doctor or family member.
Boost adherence rates by 30%
Different behavior change issues btwn getting people to sign up and continuing use.

BJ: Video is really good at persuading, conveying the user experience. 19 seconds. What works: Someone you know or a celebrity I admire. Anything else *doesn't* work.


Texting is the only mobile channel that's universal. BJ is big fan of texting. Text4Baby: Everyday they send you a text about the progress of your pregnancy.

Behavior Grid - Systematic view of human behavior

Move from Blue to Purple is easiest move to make. Move from familiar behavior to higher intensity.

Exercise: the simplest concrete step that matters.
One of biggest hurdles with persuasion is getting the first small step. Ie. 1 day. Show some small success. People are much more amiable if it's a fixed term commitment (than the rest of your life)
What doesn't work is will power. Will power doesn't exist with permanent behavioral change.

Habits: how to form new habits 1) Slim it down. Example: put on one drop of sunscreen a day. 5 minutes of walking
2) Sequence it. Find where it fits in your life and slot it in there. One behavior triggers what follows. Behavior training. What you don't know how to do is do it everyday.
3) Smile on it. If nothing else goes right today, you did this. Reward yourself. 4) Scale it up. Only later, I'm going to do the full behavior.

How to explain the Behavior Model to colleagues:
1. “Let me explain how behavior works . . . “
2. [Draw the simple graphic]
3. “There are two dimensions”
4. “One is motivation” [write it on the graphic]. “If people don’t have motivation, they won’t do the behavior.”
5. “Another dimension is ability” [write it on the graphic]. “If the behavior is too hard, people won’t do it -- or can’t do it, no matter how high the motivation” [give example, probably donate $1M dollars.]
6. “Motivation and ability are tradeoffs. If the behavior is easy, then motivation can be lower. And vice versa” [give example, if needed]
7. “But that’s not all . . . “
8. “The final element is a trigger. This is a call to action, something that says ‘do it now.’ “
9. All three element must be present at the same moment.
10. If any one is missing, the behavior will not occur.
Tip: Give simple, familiar examples -- exercise, diet, conserving energy
(something weird gets you sidetracked)
for more on the Fogg Behavior Model, see www.behaviormodel.org
BJ Fogg, August 2010, for UXweek
How to explain the Behavior Grid
1. “Not all behaviors are the same.”
2. [give example] “For example, getting people to buy a car is different from getting someone to quit smoking.
3. “Let me sketch it out . . .”
4. [draw grid with four cells]
5. “Buying a car is about getting people to DO something.” [give other examples]
6. “In contrast, quiting smoking is about STOPPING a behavior.” [gives examples]
7. “The methods for these differ. You use different strategies for stopping a behavior (AA for example) than you use for doing a behavior (test driving a car, for example)”
8. “If you confuse the methods, you are likely to fail.”
9 “Also note how buying a car is done and over with. In contrast, quitting smoking is something that continues for a lifetime. You keep quit (ideally)”
[you put checks in other parts of grid]
10. “There are 15 different types of behavior, each with its own psychology . . . but that’s not my main point. The main point is we need to think clearly about the type of behavior we want. Then we can design for it . . .”
For more info, see www.BehaviorGrid.org
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